The black toenail is a disorder characterized by the accumulation of blood under the nail. One of the most common causes is an injury to the finger, such as a fall on it from a heavy target. Thus, as a result of the injury, the nail turns, totally or partially, black or purple.
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What is the Black Toenail?
The black nail, whose technical name is a subungual hematoma, is located under the nail. In other words, it is a bruise that instead of being on the skin is located under the nail.
Although the causes that give rise to this condition are very varied, in a high percentage of cases the black nail occurs as a consequence of a strong impact on it or due to microtrauma that are frequently repeated. However, it can also occur without pain or warning.
The black nail is especially common among long-distance runners. In this type of sports, the feet are subjected to a continuous stomping session for a long time; small impacts that the fingers must absorb can give rise to what is known as a black nail.
How to Prevent Black Toenail
There are a number of measures to take into account to prevent this disorder as much as possible.
- Nails: as we have consider out, one of the main risk factors is long or deforming nails. That is why it is so important to keep your nails trimmed, always making a straight cut.
- Socks: in the same way that the footwear adapts to each activity, the socks must also be different. For example, when practicing sports, it is recommended to opt for seamless socks to avoid chafing.
- Footwear: to avoid black toenail it is essential to choose the right footwear. To check that the size is correct, it is best to try on your shoes first thing in the day.
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In many cases, the nail will heal naturally without treatment, but in more severe cases it can peel off the skin. In the cases outlined above, prompt podiatric intervention indicates in specialized centers. If the trauma has been recent or the hematoma is still liquid, a fenestration should make in the nail, that is, a specialist will make a hole in the nail platter to sewer the hematoma.
WITH THIS SMALL INTERVENTION, HEALING IS FACILITATED, PREVENTING INFECTIONS AND THE NAIL FROM DETACHING FROM THE FLESH.
Prevent and avoid a subungual hematoma. It will recommend controlling the tread and using appropriate footwear (correct size, without a narrow toe and a flexible shovel), and cutting the nails correctly, primarily if we practice sports.
2. PHYSIOLOGICAL REASONS for Black Toenail
It is a type of alteration in the color of the toenails (chromonychia), giving a dark reddish-brown hue. There are different types of melanonychias depending on the area they occupy (longitudinal or total). Any patient who suffers from a black nail without previous trauma should be studied and supervised by a professional, as it may be more serious than is thought.
This type of black nail can cause by :
Matrix nevus: It is a benign proliferation of melanocytes in the matrix to solve the problem.
Malignant melanoma: malicious production of melanocytes.
Fungal infections: total trichophytic melanonychia, Fungal infections cause a white / yellow coloration, but the accumulation of debris can lead to darker colors.
Changes in pigmentation (skin tone), Dark “spots” may appear under the toenails.
Diseases or problems such as: Diabetes, anemia, etc.
In this case, where there is no previous trauma, the differential diagnosis through different diagnostic tests (biopsies, culture, epiluminescence, etc.) is essential since the treatment will depend on the etiology of the same. Chiropody sessions are necessary for diagnosis and healing, since abnormalities observe or detects that the patient cannot see.
Home Remedies for Black Toenail
Finally, we want to point out a series of home remedies that are very effective for black nail. It is worth noting that they work when the nail has suffered a blow and you want to avoid the formation of a bruise under the nail.
- Chamomile: chamomile has great anti-inflammatory properties, making it a highly recommended home remedy to avoid this disorder after an intense blow. Simply make an infusion of chamomile and when it is warm, introduce the affected finger. Helps reduce both inflammation and pain.
- Salt: another home remedy is to place the affected nail in a container of warm water with sea salt. It is very effective in reducing inflammation and preventing the nail from turning black.
In some cases, the black nail is a painless disorder. However, as the pressure generated by the accumulated blood under the nail increases, the pain can be severe. Thus, at the slightest symptom have to see a doctor as soon as possible.